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    中国种业“翻身仗”:今已米面无忧期待花果丰美

    时间:2021-11-10 02:16:18 来源:昆山尚驰机电设备工程有限公司 作者:保定市
    原标题:中国种业“翻身仗”:今已米面无忧期待花果丰美(两会观察)中国种业“翻身仗”:今已米面无忧期待花果丰美题:中国种业“翻身仗”:今已米面无忧期待花果丰美作者李晗雪夏宾正在举行的全国两会上,中国农业农村部部长唐仁健透露,正研究制定打好种业翻身仗的行动方案,力求10年时间实现重大突破。差距在哪里?如何攻坚?种业发展将给生活带来哪些变化?农业领域的全国政协委员、全国人大代表带来专业解读。种源“卡脖子”,卡在哪?回顾种业发展历程,中国2019年粮食单产较1949年净增4.6倍,农作物自主选育品种面积占比超过95%,水稻、小麦两大口粮作物品种实现100%自给。中国用全球不到10%的耕地,养活了近20%的人口,实现了由“吃不饱”到“吃得饱”进而“吃得好”的历史性转变。但目前,家畜主要品种如白羽肉鸡等的祖代还主要依赖进口,一些高端蔬菜品种的种子也主要依赖国际大型种业企业供应。玉米、大豆单产水平仅为世界先进水平的60%左右。全国政协委员、四川农业大学校长吴德因此总结,中国虽是种质资源大国,但还不是种质资源强国;资源丰富,但创新利用效率不高。全国人大代表、民革广东省委会主委、仲恺农业工程学院校长程萍也指出,前一阶段,中国种业主要精力放在确保粮油安全上,在畜牧业、花卉、蔬果等方面,投入相对少,尚未做到精细化育种。“种业高新技术研究有待提升,尤其分子生物学利用方面,我们和国际大型跨国种业公司仍有距离。”全国政协委员、安徽农业大学常务副校长马传喜说。吴德介绍,中国育种企业数量多但规模小,技术力量弱,难与国际种业巨头竞争。弱项攻关,如何实现?程萍认为,解决上述问题,需予分子育种技术更宽松的政策,加快新技术发展。吴德表示,财政和企业需在种业领域坚持长期投入。育种过程往往需要10年至20年甚至更久,有了充分支持,才能让高端种业人才坐得住冷板凳,让种子工程久久为功,实现突破。有人才的基础上,需由国家集合资源、统筹组建国家级种子研发创新平台和共享平台。程萍将其类比为种业“航空母舰”。她认为,变过去各机构院所“分散作战”为“集群作战”,是追赶跨国种业巨头的必行之策。她今年还提案建议,可在科技、人才、资源(包括气候资源与基因资源)、经济、市场等方面综合优势突出的广东省先行先试,打造“种业硅谷”。有了大平台,就方便对育种材料进行分子标记。往后企业要进行培育,就可追溯母本材料的发明人,并进行相应利益分配。如此,科学家在研发中的贡献才能得到充分体现。精准改良未来可期今天,中国已有能力确保“谷物基本自给,口粮绝对安全”。展望中国种业未来发展,有哪些变化可期?十多年前一次赴澳大利亚的考察,给程萍留下了深刻印象。她看到,当地科学家已经在钻研改良橙子的形状、颜色、纤维量,进行精准的基因编辑研究。“不少民众喜欢新奇士橙等进口橙,其实国内也有很多好品种。但在颜色漂亮、外观整齐等指标上,精细化改良确实不够。”程萍表示,以前大家爱吃美国红提,近年随着国产红提、青提成功培育,买进口品种的人就少了。通过利用分子育种技术精准改良品种,相信这样的例子会越来越多。平价优质的国产品种将让“车厘子自由”“草莓自由”不是奢望。她说,再如花卉,目前大家喜爱的大花蕙兰等兰花品种多为进口,价格相对昂贵。未来,我们也能快速培育出颜色更艳丽、甚至增添香味的鲜花品种,装点出更多彩的生活。老话说,“手中有粮,心中不慌”。在几代农业专家努力下,中国已经行抵粮油不愁、米面无忧的阶段,种业发展还将带来何种丰美惊喜,令人期待。

    (责任编辑:福建省)

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